This campaign took place in April 2015, with the focus upon the characterization of ice clouds and pollutant levels, including black carbon, across the Arctic. The campaign was again a collaboration between NETCARE scientists and AWI. Along with the POLAR 6, the POLAR 5 make the trans-Arctic passage with its intent to characterize sea ice levels. The campaign started in Longyearben, Spitzbergen and was to have continued in Station Nord, Greenland but bad weather at the start required us to skip science activities in Station Nord and to pass to Alert and Eureka, Nunavut and then onto Inuvik, NWT.
The instrumentation (list below) was similar to that flow in the summer 2014 but with specific changes to better characterize the optical properties of the particles and the character of the ice clouds. Close to 10 science flights were performed, with some measurements also performed on the ferry flights between stations. During the campaign our scientists submitted updates that can be found in the NETCARE activities blog.
POLAR 6 2015 Instrumentation
Ten NETCARE scientistswere on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, a research icebreaker, studying atmospheric and oceanic composition throughout the central Arctic. The cruise departed from Quebec City on July 8, entering Lancaster Sound on July 17, undergoing a partial exchange of scientists at Resolute Bay, Nunavut on July 24, before heading west through the Northwest Passage. All NETCARE scientists left the ship on August 14 in Kugluktuk, Northwest Territories.
The scientific goal was to assess the impact of the ocean in promoting the formation of atmospheric aerosols. In particular, as sea ice retreats in years to come, it is important to understand the role that oceans play in affecting Arctic climate. To do this, we took measurements of biogeochemical parameters in the ocean to explore the production of molecules that are released from the ocean to the atmosphere. On the atmospheric side, we measured the concentrations of these gases and their oxidation products, and studied the nature of the ambient atmospheric aerosol particles, including their size, concentration, composition and cloud nucleating abilities.
Please follow these links for a map of the five-week-long Amundsen Arctic cruise and a list of instrumentation deployed. During the campaign we hosted a Campaign Blog that will be updated regularly by the NETCARE scientists.
A large-scale aircraft campaign (on the German POLAR6 aircraft) that took place in July 2014, based out of Resolute Bay, Nunavut, aimed to assess the different roles that oceanic input and long range transport from lower latitudes play in driving Arctic atmospheric composition. For five days in late July, the aircraft also sampled emissions from the Amundsen icebreaker, as a case study of how ship emissions may lead to effects on the Arctic atmosphere, including clouds. With large scale commercial shipping likely to occur in the Arctic with sea ice retreat, a firm understanding of the processes governing the impacts of ship emissions is needed.
This campaign was a collaboration of NETCARE university scientists with Environment Canada, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), Max Planck Institute at Mainz and the University of Mainz, which will all have instrumentation on the plane. LATMOS (France) provided forecasting support. The POLAR6 is a DC-3 (built in 1942 for wartime service) operated by AWI that has been entirely re-built and outfitted for polar studies Typical flight profiles during the four-week-long, 90-flight-hour NETCARE campaign included altitude profiles to 20,000 feet to assess vertical structure of the atmosphere and long range transport, spatial studies over ice and open water to assess biological sources of particles, and plume emission studies of the Amundsen icebreaker in Lancaster Sound.
The campaign starts with equipment integration in June 2014 and a test flight at Muskoka airport on June 27, with the first planned Arctic flight on July 3 from Resolute Bay, Nunavut. Flights will finish on July 23, before flying back to Muskoka for de-integration of the equipment.
Below you will find a list of instrumentation on the aircraft, in addition, here is a map of POLAR6 research locations during the summer of 2014. Our researchers and graduate students will be posted regular updates on our Campaign Blog throughout the campaign.
POLAR 6 2014 Instrumentation
In August 2013, NETCARE scientists conducted a campaign on the west coast of Vancouver Island, attempting to characterize the nature of ice nuclei in a marine environment. Measurements were conducted to measure the ambient levels of both deposition and immersion ice nucleating particles, and physical and chemical properties of the ambient particle and trace gases. As well, we collected ocean microlayer and studied the ice nucleating properties of particles that were formed from this material. In addition to scientists from the University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto, the campaign went ahead with strong collaborations with Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and the University of Denver.